OSS-Dokumente über Ignazio Silone

documenti del OSS su Ignazio Silone
documents de l'OSS sur Iganzio Silone
OSS documents on Ignazio Silone
 
(die meisten Dokumente sind auf englisch oder italienisch, einige auch auf französisch) 
(la maggior parte dei documenti è in inglese o italiano, alcuni anche in francese) 
(la plupart des documents est en anglais ou en italien, quelques-uns en français) 
(most documents are in english or italian, some in french) 
 
Vorbemerkung: Der amerikanische Historiker Neal H. Petersen dokumentierte als erster die Kontakte, die der amerikanische Geheimdienst von 1942 bis 1944 zu Silone unterhielt (Neal H. Petersen, From Hitler's Doorstep. The Wartime Intelligence Reports of Allen Dulles, 1942-1945. Pennsylvania State University Press 1996), und er druckte einige der Berichte ab, in denen Allen Dulles sich auf Silone bezog. In einer Anmerkung (S. 570, zum Dokument 1-41) verwies er auf ein spezielles Dossier von OSS-Akten über Silone (OSS: Office of Strategic Services; US-Geheimdienst der Kriegsjahre) das sich in den National Archives in Washington D.C. befindet, und zwar unter folgender Signatur: National Archives, Operational Records of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), Record Group (RG) 226, Entry 125, Box 8. Ich danke Mia Waller, die mir dankenswerterweise die Dokumente kopierte und schickte. Mit der Ausnahme von ca. 50 Dokumenten weniger grosser Wichtigkeit (v.a. Entwürfe und der Telegrammverkehr Silones mit Exil-Sozialisten in den USA und in England) werden alle nachfolgend reproduziert. Der "Istituzione Centro Studi 'Ignazio Silone'" in Pescina und der "Fondazione Ignazio Silone" in Sulmona (Aquila) habe ich einen kompletten Satz dieser Akten zur Verfügung gestellt. Die Gruppierung der Dokumente zu kleineren Paketen hier folgt rein praktischen Überlegungen. Es braucht nicht eigens betont zu werden, dass die nachfolgende Edition kein Ersatz ist für eine systematische, wissenschaftliche Aufarbeitung dieser Akten, die von mir wegen anderweitigen Verpflichtungen nicht geleistet werden kann. (Ich bitte um Nachsicht für einige Unterstreichungen, die ich zu einem Zeitpunkt auf den Kopien vornahm, als ich noch nicht daran dachte, dass die Silone-Debatte es nötig machten würde, sie zu veröffentlichen.)
 
Note: L'historien américain Neal H. Petersen fut le premier à établir à base de documents les contacts que service de renseignements secret américain a entretenus avec Silone entre 1942 et 1944 (Neal H. Petersen, From Hitler's Doorstep. The Wartime Intelligence Reports of Allen Dulles, 1942-1945. Pennsylvania State University Press 1996), et il édita dans son livres un échantillon des rapports de Allen Dulles se référant à Silone. Dans une note (p.570, concernant le document 1-41), il signalait l'existance d'un dossier de l'OSS (OSS: Office of Strategic Services) sur Silone qui se trouve dans les National Archives à Washington D.C, sous la cote suivante: National Archives, Operational Records of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), Record Group (RG) 226, Entry 125, Box 8. Je remercie Mia Waller d'avoir bien voulu me photocopier ces documents. Sauf environ 50 documents de moindre importance (surtout des esquisses et l'échange de télégrammes avec des socialistes exilés aux Etats-Unis et en Grande-Bretagne) tous seront ci-dessous reproduits. Cependant, j'ai mis des photocopies de la totalité de ces documents à la disposititon de la "Istituzione Centro Studi 'Ignazio Silone'" à Pescina et à la "Fondazione Ignazio Silone" à Sulmona (Aquila). L'arrangement des documents dans des groupes suit seulement des considérations pratiques. Cela va sans dire qu'une édition sur internet comme celle-ci ne remplace pas une étude systématique et scientifique que moi-même ne peut pas envisager à cause d'autres devoirs. (Veuillez excuser les marques que ma lecture a laissé parfois sur les documents - je n'avais alors pas du tout pensé que le débat sur Silone m'obligerait à les publier.)
 
Note: The american historian Neal H. Petersen was the first to present the documents of the secret contacts of the OSS (Office of Strategic Services) with Silone from 1942 to 1944 (Neal H. Petersen, From Hitler's Doorstep. The Wartime Intelligence Reports of Allen Dulles, 1942-1945. Pennsylvania State University Press 1996), and he printed some of the reports of Allen Dulles referring to Silone. In a note (p. 570, concerning document 1-41), he disclosed the existence of a folder of OSS (Office of Strategic Services) records on Silone in the National Archives Washington D.C: National Archives, Operational Records of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), Record Group (RG) 226, Entry 125, Box 8. I would like to thank Mia Waller for having made these documents available for me. With the exception of about 50 documents of minor importance (drafts and telegram-exchange with fellow socialists in exile in the United States or Great Britain) all are reproduced here. However, I sent copies of all the documents to the "Istituzione Centro Studi 'Ignazio Silone'" in Pescina and to the "Fondazione Ignazio Silone" In Sulmona (Aquila). The edition of the documents in groups has no other than a purely practical purpose. I understand that a publication on the Internet like this one does not replace a thorough scientific study, which I can't pursue because of other obligations. (Sorry for leaving marks on the documents, but while reading them, I could not yet imagine that the debate on Silone would require publishing them.)
 
Silone erhielt verschiedene Code-Namen: Les noms de guerre de Silone furent: Different code names were given to Silone: S., Len, Frost, Mr. Behr, "Man from the Mountains"; Betty; 
 
Silones OSS-Code-Nummer war 475. Dans la liste classifiée des contacts de l'OSS, Silone eut le numéro 475. Silone's OSS code number was 475. 
 
Silones Kontaktperson zu den Amerikaner war zuerst, aber nur sehr kurz, Gerald Mayer. Gerald Mayer (siehe Dokumente, Gruppe 1) war einer der engsten Mitarbeiter von Allen Dulles. Mayer war der Vertreter des Office of War Information (siehe Neal H. Petersen, From Hitler's Doorstep. The Wartime Intelligence Reports of Allen Dulles, 1942-1945. Pennsylvania State University Press 1996, S. 5; Peter Grose, Gentleman Spy. The life of Allen Dulles. The University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst 1994, S. 149). 
 
Le contact de Silone avec les américains s'établit à travers Gerald Mayer. Gerald Mayer (voire groupe 1 des documents) fut un des plus proches collaborateurs de Allen Dulles. Officiellement, Mayer fut le représentant de l'Office of War Information (voire Neal H. Petersen, From Hitler's Doorstep. The Wartime Intelligence Reports of Allen Dulles, 1942-1945. Pennsylvania State University Press 1996, p. 5; Peter Grose, Gentleman Spy. The life of Allen Dulles. The University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst 1994, p. 149). 
 
It was through Gerald Mayer (see dokuments, Group 1) that the contact between the OSS and Silone was established. Gerald Mayer was one of the closest aides of Allen Dulles. Mayer's official duty was being the representative of the Office of War Information (see Neal H. Petersen, From Hitler's Doorstep. The Wartime Intelligence Reports of Allen Dulles, 1942-1945. Pennsylvania State University Press 1996, p. 5; Peter Grose, Gentleman Spy. The life of Allen Dulles. The University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst 1994, p. 149). 
 
Silones eigentlicher Kontaktmann war danach Frederick R. Loofbourow. Seine OSS Codenummer war 493). Loufbourow suchte Silone regelmässig auf, und übersetzte Silones Telegramme und Briefe meistens direkt ins Englische. Das ist der Grund, weshalb die meisten Silone-Dokumente in der Handschrift von Loofbourow verfasst sind. Neal H. Petersen schreibt über Loofbourow (At Hitler's Doorstep, p. 625): "Number 493, Frederick R. Loofbourow, had been employed by Standard Oil of New Jersey before the war. Sent to Switzerland in 1942 by the Borard of Economic Warfare to report on German petroleum production, he served as senior economic analyst at the U.S. Consulate General in Zurich but worked in large part for Dulles." 
 
L'agent de l'OSS responsable pour Silone fut ensuite Frederick R. Loofbourow. Son numéro de code dans l'OSS Codenummer fut 493). Loufbourow aller voir Silone régulièrement, et la plupart des temps il traduisit les télégrammes que Silone voulait envoyer, les lettres et les rapports de Silone directement en anglais. C'est la raison pour laquelle la majorité des documents de Silone sont écrit par la main de Loofbourow. Neal H. Petersen écrit sur Loofbourow (At Hitler's Doorstep, p. 625): "Number 493, Frederick R. Loofbourow, had been employed by Standard Oil of New Jersey before the war. Sent to Switzerland in 1942 by the Borard of Economic Warfare to report on German petroleum production, he served as senior economic analyst at the U.S. Consulate General in Zurich but worked in large part for Dulles." 
 
Afterwards, it was Frederick R. Loofbourow who was responsible for Silone. His OSS code number was 493). Loufbourow went regularly to see Silone, and translated the telegrams that Silone wanted to send away and Silones letters and reports most of the time directly In english. That is the reason why the majority of Silone's documents are written by the hand of Loofbourow. Neal H. Petersen writes on Loofbourow (At Hitler's Doorstep, p. 625): "Number 493, Frederick R. Loofbourow, had been employed by Standard Oil of New Jersey before the war. Sent to Switzerland in 1942 by the Borard of Economic Warfare to report on German petroleum production, he served as senior economic analyst at the U.S. Consulate General in Zurich but worked in large part for Dulles." 
 
Der Sitz des OSS in der Schweiz befand sich in Bern. 
Le bureaux suisses de l'OSS se trouvèrent à Berne. 
The Swiss offices of the OSS were in Bern. 
 
Mehrere Male traf sich Silone auch mit Allen Dulles selbst. 
Plusieurs fois, Silone eut des entretiens directs avec Allen Dulles. 
Several times, Silone met with Allan Dulles directly. 
 
 
Für mehr Informationen zu Ignazio Silone siehe www.geheimeagentin.de
 
 
Gruppe 1/groupe 1:
Doc. 1: January 9, 1942 (Irrtum/erreur/error: In Wirklichkeit/en réalité/in fact: 1943!)
Gerald Mayer to Allen Dulles, concerning Ignazio Silone's conflict with John McCaffrey (Datum im Dokument selbst falsch geschrieben)
 
Anmerkung: John McCaffrey war der Vertreter des britischen SOE (Special Operations Executive) in der Schweiz - und zuständig für Sabotage-Operationen u.a. in Italien. Silone hatte einen Konflikt mit ihm, da der SOE mit einer italienischen geheimen Sabotage-Organisation zusammenarbeitete, von der Silone wusste oder ahnte, dass sie von der faschistischen Geheimpolizei unterwandert war; Silone setzte innerhalb der sozialistischen Widerstandsbewegung ein Verbot der Zusammenarbeit mit dieser Geheimorganisation durch; John McCaffrey sah erst nach einer gewissen Zeit ein, dass Silone Recht gehabt hatte (siehe Dokument in der Gruppe 23).
 
Note: Dans ce document, il est question de John Mc Caffrey. Il fut le représentant du SOE britannique en Suisse (SOE: Special Operations Executive) et responsable pour les opérations de sabotage entre autres en Italie. Silone et lui se détestaient réciproquement. Silone savait ou s'en doutait que le SOE travaillait avec une organisation secrète italienne de sabotage dans laquelle la police secrète fasciste se fut infiltrée; au sein du mouvement de résistance socialiste, Silone arriva à interdire tout contact avec cette organisation; John McCaffrey se rendit compte bien plus tard que Silone avait raison (voire le document dans la groupe 23).
 
Doc. 2: January 9, 1942 (Irrtum/erreur/error: In Wirklichkeit/en réalité/in fact: 1943!)
Gerald Mayer to Allen Dulles, concerning Ignazio Silone's refusal to take money: "Silone emphasized the fact that under no circumstances would his Party accept funds other than from a Socialist or Labor Union, as they want to keep the record clean."
 
Anmerkung: Auf die Gehaltsliste der Amerikaner wurde Silone auf eigenen Wunsch nicht gesetzt; dafür verschaffte die US-Botschaft Silone die für den Kampf nötigen Gelder von den italo-amerikanischen Gewerkschaften und den Vertretern der Sozialistischen Partei Italiens in den USA und in England. Erst vom Sommer 1944 scheint sich (siehe Dok. 184, Bericht Loofbourow vom 10. August 1944) Silone um eine Finanzierung seiner parteipolitischen Aktionen durch die Amerikaner bemüht zu haben. 
 
Note 1: Silone ne voulut pas être payé par les américains ("to keep the record clean" - afin de garder les bilans "propre"); mais l'Ambassade américain fit venir pour lui les moyens nécessaires pour la lutte que les syndicats italo-américains et les représentants américains et britanniques du Parti socialiste italien mettaient à sa disposition. Néanmoins, Silone semble s'être efforcé à partir de l'été 1944 d'obtenir des fonds de la part des américains pour ses actions au cadre du parti socialiste (voire doc. 184).
 
Doc. 3: January 9, 1942 (Irrtum/erreur/error: In Wirklichkeit/en réalité/in fact: 1943!)
Gerald Mayer to Allen Dulles, concerning information Ignazio Silone gave him in a private talk.
 
Doc. 4: 7 janvier 1942 (Irrtum/erreur/error: In Wirklichkeit/en réalité/in fact: 1943!)
Ignazio Silone wendet sich in französischer Sprache an Gerald Mayer oder Allen Dulles (Anmerkung: Irrtümlich hatte ich den Brief auf dieser Webseite auf das Jahr 1942 datiert; der Fehler wurde im April 2009 korrigiert) Silone wurde am 14. Dezember 1942 in Zürich verhaftet. Am 30. Dezember 1942, nach einem letzten Verhör, kam er einstweilen auf freien Fuß und musste sich dann am 8. Januar 1943 nach Davos begehen, in die von einem katholischen Schwesternorden geführte Pension Strela.
 
Ignazio Silone s'adresse en français à Gerald Mayer ou Allen Dulles: "Je dois quitter demain Zurich et m'établir à Davos (...). Les nouvelles d'Italie paraissent encourageantes." (Note: par erreur, j' ai longtemps pensé que cette lettre date du 7 janvier 1942, c'était faut; la faute a été corrigée en avril 2009). Silone fut arrêté le 14 décembre 1942 à Zurich. Après un dernier interrogatoire, il a été libéré provisoirement le 30 décembre 1942. Il devait se rendre à Davos le 8 janvier 1943, où il habitait ensuite à la Pension Strela, gérée par des bonnes soeurs catholiques.
 
Ignazio Silone informs Gerald Mayer or Allen Dulles that he has to go to Davos. (Note: By error I thought previously, that this letter was written in 1942; I rectified this in April 2009) Silone was arrested on December 14, 1942 in Zurich. After a last interrogatory, he was liberated provisorily and had to go to Davos on January 8, 1943. There, he lived at Pension Strela, a house kept by catholic sister's order. 
 
Gruppe 2/groupe 2:
Doc. 5: Novembre 1942
"Al popolo francese".
 
Doc. 6: ca. January 1943
"Excerpts from report published by Italian Socialist Party" and résumé of proclamations (September and November 1942)
 
Doc. 7: Gennaio 1943 
"Informazioni dall'Italia", "Il processo di rinnovvamento del movimento operaio Torinese"
Doc. 8: (pagina 2 del Doc.7)
Doc. 9: (pagina 3 del Doc. 7)
 
Doc. 10
"Parole d'ordine per la propaganda radio":
 
Doc. 11:
"Suggestions for radio propaganda" (english translation of Doc. 10)
 
Gruppe 3/groupe 3:
Doc. 12
"News items"
 
Doc. 13: March 22, 1943
"Silones view point on general situation"
Doc. 14: (page 2 of Doc. 13)
 
Doc. 15: April 19, 1943 
"Miscellaneous" (news from Italy)
 
Doc. 16: April 19, 1943
"Political prisoners"; "Resolution of the Italian Socialist Party" (urgent request to the United Nations)
 
Doc. 17
"Letter for Mr. (Gerald) Mayer" and telegram for Vanni Montana (exiled italian socialist living in the United States, Secretary of the Italian Socialists in the USA, charged with the maintenance of communications with the Italian Socialist Party and the Italian Labour Confederation; see: Dario Biocca/Mauro Canali, L'informatore: Silone, i communisti e la Polizia. Luni editrice, Milano 2000, p. 88, 107 and 259)
Note: The American Embassy in Bern was taking care of all the telegrams Silone wanted to send to fellow socialists in the United States and Great Britain. 
 
Doc. 18:
Letter (from Silone, through Gerald Mayer) to Allen Dulles on allied broadcasts in Italian.
 
Gruppe 4/groupe 4
Doc. 19:
"Premises-conclusions-remarks": Silone on key questions of allied propaganda after the Conference of Casablanca (January 14-26, 1943)
 
Doc. 20
"1. The watchword: 'The war is lost but Italy can still save herself' 2. Intensification of the Civil Disobedience Campaign"
 
Doc. 21: March 30, 1943
Letter from Silone to Allen Dulles (in the handwriting of Loofbourow who translated what Silone had to say and signed with "Ignazio Silone"; for the typed version see Doc. 25-27)
Doc. 22: (page 2 of Doc. 21)
 
Doc. 23
Loofbourow reporting from Silone (in the handwriting of Loofbourow; no date indicated; for the typed version see Doc. 28-31)
Doc. 24: (page 2 of Doc. 23)
 
Doc. 25: March 30, 1943
Letter from Silone to Allen Dulles (for Loofbourows handwritten draft see doc. 21-22)
Doc. 26: (page 2 of Doc. 25)
Doc. 27: (page 3 of Doc. 25)
 
Doc. 28: 
Loofbourow reporting from Silone (for Loofbourows handwritten draft see doc. 23-24)
Doc. 29: (page 2 of Doc. 28)
Doc. 30: (page 3 of Doc. 28)
Doc. 31: (page 4 of Doc. 28)
 
Gruppe 5/groupe 5
Doc. 32
"Primo Maggio 1943: la guerra è perduta, ma l'Italia può ancora salvarsi! (Un appello del Partito Socialista Italiano)"
Doc. 33: (pagina 2 del doc. 32)
Doc. 34: (pagine 3 del doc. 33)
 
Doc. 35
"The General Labor Confederation's appeal for the First of May"
 
Doc. 36
"May First 1943" (english translation of Doc. 32-34)
Doc. 37: (page 2 of Doc. 36)
 
 
Gruppe 6/groupe 6:
Doc. 38
"Manifesto del movimento per l'Europa libera e unita" (1943) 
Doc. 39: (pagina 2 del doc. 38)
Doc. 40: (pagina 3 del doc. 38)
Doc. 41: (pagina 4)
Doc. 42: (p. 5)
Doc. 43: (p. 6)
Doc. 44: (p. 7)
Doc. 45: (p. 8)
Doc. 46: (p. 9)
Doc. 47: (p. 10)
Doc. 48: (p. 11)
 
Gruppe 7/groupe 7
Doc. 49
"Nel periode di convulsioni che traversiamo..." (1943)
Doc. 50: (pagina 2 del doc. 49)
Doc. 51: (pagina 3 del doc. 49)
 
Gruppe 8/groupe 8:
Doc. 52
"My dear Betty"
 
Anmerkung 1: Text vom 22. April 1943, der mit grösster Wahrscheinlichkeit von Darina Laracy stammt, der zukünftigen Frau von Silone; sie signiert mit "D."; "Betty" scheint ein weiblicher Code-Name gewesen zu sein, den sie aus Tarnungsgründen Silone gab; die ironisch klingende Anrede "old girl" im letzten Abschnitt bezieht sich auf "Betty"/Silone; sowie einen weiteren Brief an Silone von ihr, undatiert, wahrscheinlich Anfang 1944, den sie mit "Darina" signiert; zu diesem Zeitpunkt war ein grosser Teil Italiens von den Alliierten schon befreit worden und die strenge Tarnung nicht mehr nötig.
 
Note 1: Texte du 22 avril 1943 qui provient presque certainement de Darina Laracy, la future épouse de Silone; elle signe avec "D."; il paraît que "Betty" fut le nom de guerre féminin qu'elle attribua à Silone pour de raison de conspiration; le vocatif "old girl" tout en bas se réfère à "Betty"/Silone; ainsi qu'une deuxième lettre d'elle à Silone, sans date, probablement début 1944, qu'elle signe avec "Darina"; à ce moment-là, les alliés avait déjà libéré une partie substantielle de l'Italie, et pour cette raison, les mesures de précaution furent moins urgentes.
 
Anmerkung 2: Darina Laracy wurde von der Schweizerischen Bundespolizei verdächtigt, Geheimagentin zu sein. Am 25. Juni 1942 wurde sie in Zürich verhaftet, aber nach ein paar Tagen wieder freigelassen. Im Bundesarchiv in Bern gibt es einige wenige Dokumente über den Vorfall: 
 
Note 2: La Police fédérale suisse souçonna Darina Laracy d'être agent secret. Le 25 juin 1942, elle fut arrêtée à Zurich, mais libérée probablement après peu de jours. Aux archives fédérales suisses à Berne, il y a quelques documents sur cet incident:
 
Schweizerisches Bundesarchiv, Bern, E 2001 (D); 2; Bd. 112: 
Telegramm vom Chef der Bundespolizei, Werner Balsiger, an den Nachrichtendienst der Kantonspolizei Zürich, 25. Juni 1942 (fs 482):
 
"Betrifft Ihre fs. 910, Laracy Darina, Dr. phil. geb. 30.3.17 in Dublin, dahin zuständig. 
Wie Ihnen bekannt ist, stand die Laracy bereits seit Juni 1941, das heisst kurz nach ihrem Eintritt in die Schweiz, unter Verdacht des verbotenen Nachrichtendienstes. Es wurde ihr in Bern und Zürich die Post kontrolliert und sie selbst wurde auch wiederholt überwacht. Vergangenen Freitag, den 19. Juni a.c. wurde der Genannten im Hauptbahnhof Zürich ein schwerer Reisekoffer mit Wäsche und Korrespondenzen entwendet, welcher aber wieder beigebracht wurde. Der Verdacht der politischen Tätigkeit bestärkte sich bei Durchsicht verschiedener im Koffer sich befindlichen Dokumente und rechtfertigte die sofortige Inhaftnahme der Laracy. Die Kontrolle der schriftlichen Sachen erschwert sich dadurch, dass alles mit kleinen Ausnahmen in Fremdsprachen gehalten ist. Wir haben die Beschuldigte eingehend einvernommen, aber konkrete Beweise für Spionagetätigkeiten konnten bis jetzt nicht ermittelt werden. Das Ermittlungsverfahren dürfte heute oder morgen, sofern sich keine Erweiterungen ergeben, zu Ende gehen, wobei wir gezwungen sein werden, die Beschuldigte auf freien Fuss zu setzen. Wir haben heute noch ihren Reisepass aus Bellinzona per Express hieher kommen lassen um ihn einer eingehenden Kontrolle zu unterziehen."
 
Doc. 53: (page 2 of doc. 52)
entfällt!  
 
Gruppe 9/groupe 9:
Doc. 54: May 5, 1943
Loofbourow reporting from Silone (Silone "esteems" Allen Dulles and warns him from gossip in the italian speaking part of Switzerland)
Doc. 55: (page 2 of Doc. 54)
 
Doc. 56: May 5, 1943
Silone pushes for an allied radio campaign
 
Anmerkung: Silone nahm in verschiedenster Hinsicht Einfluss auf die Rundfunk-Propagandasendungen der Alliierten für Italien; 110 war die OSS-Codenummer von Allen Dulles; 
 
Note: Silone influençait de façon très précise les émissions de propagande des alliés destinées pour l'Italie; 110; c'était le numéro de Allen Dulles dans l'OSS; 
 
Doc. 57
"Appeal to be broadcast June 1st" (1943)
Doc. 58: (page 2 of doc. 57)
 
Doc. 59: 17. Mai 1943 
Brief von Emmie Oprecht an Allen Dulles zur Vereinbarung eines Treffens zwischen Allen Dulles und Silone in Zürich. 
Lettre de Emmie Oprecht qui servit à la préparation d'une rencontre de Allen Dulles et Silone.
 
Doc. 60: 1er juin 1943
"Appel aux mutilés et anciens combattents" (italiens); le 10 juin 1943 auront lieu des manifestations pour commémorer l'assassinat de Matteotti.
 
Gruppe 10/groupe 10
Doc. 61
"La posizione del Partito socialista italiano"
Doc. 62: (english translation)
Doc. 63: (page 2 of doc. 62)
 
Gruppe 11/groupe 11
Doc. 64a: 
"Ai mutilati di guerra! (Progetto di appello per il 1 giugno)" (1943) 
Doc. 64b: (pagine 2 del doc. 64a)
 
Doc. 66
"A memorandum of the Italian Socialist Party regarding the aerial bombardments of the civilian population"
Doc. 67: (page 2 of doc. 66)
 
Gruppe 12/groupe 12
Doc. 68a
Telegramm (Silones) for Vanni Montana: "the policy of the United Nations towards Italy" (undatiert, aber vor dem 10. Juli 1943 [Tag der Landung der Alliierten auf Sizilien])
 
Doc. 68b:
Silone an Allen Dulles (undatiert)
 
Doc. 69
"Revival of the General Labour Confederation, the Socialist trade-union organisation"
 
Doc. 70
Telegrammi di Silone (Adolfo Berle, State Department, Washington; Monatana, New York; Luzzato, London)
 
Doc. 71: July 9, 1943
Loofbourow reporting - "Just returned from a long walk with the man from the mountains" (after the arrestation in December 1942 and new problems with his lungs, Silone's compulsory residence had been the alpine resort Davos (see doc. 4), for many months; then he was sent to Baden near Zurich)
 
Doc. 72: July 28, 1943
"Per la pace e la repubblica" (against monarchy)
 
Doc. 73: July 28, 1943
"Per la lotta senza compromessi contra la guerra et contro la monarchia fascista"
 
Doc. 74: July 19, 1943
Telegramms (Berle, State Department; Vanni Montana, N.Y.; Luzzato, London)
 
Doc. 75
Silone comments the agreement between the Italian Socialist Party and Partito d'Azione, and the declaration of Roosevelt concerning Italy
Doc. 76: (page 2 of doc. 75)
 
Doc. 77
Telegramms (to Vanni Montana, N.Y.; Luzzato, London)
Doc. 78: (page 2 of Doc. 77) 
 
Gruppe 13/groupe 13
Doc. 79
Lettre de Silone à Allen Dulles (en français; probablement en août 1943)
Doc. 80: (page 2 du doc. 79, juste encore quelques mots: "-fiance aux italiens libres de faire le reste. Votre S."
 
Doc. 81
8 août 1943: Lettre de Silone à Mr. D. (Allen Dulles).
 
Doc. 82: 20 août 1943
Lettre à Mr. D.: "Je vous remercie de m'avoir transmis le message du comte S.* (...) par lequel il se déclare d'une manière définitive contra la monarchie." (*Sforza)
Doc. 83: (page 2 du doc. 82)
 
Gruppe 14/groupe 14
Doc. 84: Milano 10 luglio 1943
"Comitato sindicale socialista. Cari Compagni (...). Il nostro lungo silenzio, voi lo sapete, non ha voluto dire passività (...)."
Doc. 85: (pagina 2 del doc. 84)
 
Doc. 86
"From a report of the Italian Socialist Party"
Doc. 87: July 19, 1943
List of persons arrested 
 
Gruppe 15/groupe 15
Doc. 88: July 24, 1943
Loofbourow (493) reporting from Silone ("S."): "He did not mention the declarations of Amgot*, Eisenhower or Alexander. Seemed to have cooled down."
*Allied Military Government in Southern Italy
 
Doc. 89: July 29, 1943
Loofbourow (493) reporting "News" from Silone "Man from the Mountain": "The resignation came Saturday night. Sunday was used to occupy key points with soldiers..."
Doc. 90: (page 2 of doc. 89)
Doc. 91: (page 3 of doc. 89)
Doc. 92: (page 4)
Doc. 93: (p. 5)
Doc. 94: (p. 6)
Doc. 95: (p. 7)
Doc. 96: (p. 8)
Doc. 97: (p. 9)
Doc. 98: (p. 10)
Doc. 99: (p. 11)
 
Doc. 100: August 15, 1943
Loofbourow reporting from Silone ("Man from the Mountains"): "Just before I saw him yesterday he destroyed the written stuff he had for me, because the police called on him, but it turned out that all they wanted was to tell him he could stay in Baden ..."
Doc. 101: (page 2 of doc. 100)
 
Gruppe 16/groupe 16
Doc. 102
Silone critique Comte Sforza (New York), dans un télégramme (été 1943)
 
Doc. 103
Telegramme à Adolphe Berle (Washington)
 
Doc. 104:
Appeal of the Italian Socialist Party - "At the first threat respond with a general strike" (Document in italian language)
 
Doc. 105: 16 Septembre 1943
Telegramma di Silone per Sforza: "A mio parere la sola forma possibile di partecipazione dell'Italia liberata alla guerra contro il nazismo sarà..."
 
Doc. 106: September 24, 1943
"Message for S. from M."
 
Gruppe 17/groupe 17
Doc. 107
L. (Loofbourow) for S. (Silone): "We have been requested to offer to facilitate a trip for you to Italy via France, if you wish to go."
 
Doc. 108:
Loufbourow reporting: Italian Socialists against appeal of Mussolini "to defend the soil of the fatherland"
Doc. 109: (page 2 of doc. 108)
 
Doc. 110: August 12, 1943
"For your information and for the radio (...). The Milanes Socialist federation deplores the stupidity of the leaflets dropped by the British planes."
Doc. 111: (page 2 of doc. 110)
 
Doc. 112
"From Silone" (an Allen Dulles): "Mr. D. Merci pour le message de Luzzato. D'ailleurs je l'avais déjà reçu. Par contre je n'ai pas encore eu d'autres messages dont vous m'avez annoncé l'arrivée lors de notre dernière rencontre; mais je suppose que leur contenu est insignifiant. (...)"
 
Doc. 113
Telegrammi per Montana (N.Y.) e per Luzzato (London)
 
Doc. 114
Telegramma per Luzzato
 
Doc. 115
Telegramma per Luzzato
 
Doc. 116
3 Telegrams for Luzzato and 1 for Montana
Doc. 117: (page 2 of doc. 116)
Doc. 118: (page 3 of doc. 117)
 
Gruppe 18/groupe 18
Doc. 119
Lettre de Silone à Allen Dulles (août 1943); Silone ne veut pas fournir la liste avec les noms des antifascistes italien, parce qu'il se méfie de l'AMGOT (gouvernement militaire des alliés dans les zones occupées)
 
Doc. 120: August 28, 1943
Letter from Allen Dulles to Silone - Dulles wants to see Silone, "as it is difficult to deal with these matters in this fashion."
Doc. 121: 31 août 1943
Lettre de Silone à Dulles
 
Transcription de la lettre (la copie est trop foncé pour la lire):
 
Le 31 Août 1943 
 
Je vous remercie de votre communication du 28 Août. J'apprécie dans toute leur valeur les explications que vous avez eu l'obligeance de me fournir et je vous assure que s'il s'agissait d'une controverse regardant seulement ma personne, je n'oserais pas d'ajouter encore là-dessus un seul mot; mais puisqu'il s'agit d'un problème d'ordre général, intéressant au plus haut degré le courant politique dont je suis membre et le pays dont je suis un citoyen, vous me pardonnerez si j'ose d'ajouter encore quelques mots.
 
L'opinion publique a considéré comme affirmations en faveur du maintien de la monarchie Italienne plusieurs déclarations récentes de Roosevelt et de Churchill. Vous-même, vous rappélerez (sic!) du blâme infligé par Roosevelt au speaker de la radio de New York qui avait osé nommer le roi d'Italie dans la liste des personnages s'ayant compromis avec la dictature fasciste. Le malheureux speaker perdit sa place et, d'après un Radio Bulletin de votre Légation, fut dénoncé pour son crime à l'autorité judiciaire. Dans (sic!) la même occasion Roosevelt déclara son accord avec une déclaration prononcée par Churchill un ou deux jours auparavant, selon laquelle les alliés n'ont pas l'intention de détruire les institutions traditionelles du peuple Italien. En soi et pour soi, une telle déclaration pourrait être considérée assez vague, si on pense, par exemple, que les spaghetti aux tomates sont aussi une des institutions traditionnelles du peuple italien; mais les commentaires de la presse anglaise et les correspondances des journalistes neutres furent unanimes à considérer les mots de Churchill comme se rapportant à la monarchie italienne. Et puis, et puis, il y a les plans de restauration dinastique en Autriche, en Espagne, etc. qui aident à renforcer la crainte que la politique des Alliés, sauf la Russie, poursuit un rêve de Metternich, autant réactionnaire qu'illusoire. La Sainte-Alliance avait cru, par des restaurations dinastiques, s'éliminer la révolution de l'Europe; mais en 1830, en 1833, en 1848 la révolution réapparût. Les Alliés ont quelques possibilités d'empêcher que l'Europe sombre dans le bolschévisme, et c'est par une courageuse politique progressive. Mais je ne suis pas aussi naif de croire que mes billets et messages puissent, même dans une mesure minime, influencer la détermination d'une politique obéissant à des forces bien plus lourdes. Mon but, en réalité, est plus modeste: contribuer à établir des rapports de compréhension réciproque entre vous et les forces de la démocratie sociale Italienne.
 
Il faudrait imprimer sur les édifices de l'AMGOT* la devise de Clémenceau: "La guerre est une chose trop sérieuse pour la laisser aux militaires." Nous ne demandons pas que l'AMGOT fasse la révolution sociale en Sicilie, mais qu'elle fasse au moins ce que Badoglio est en train de faire sur le reste de l'Italie après la chute de Mussolini. Le parti socialiste demande: 1. que ses syndicats fascistes soient confiés à des commissaires socialistes et chrétiens-démocrates; 2. qu'il soit permis de publier à Palerme un journal pour la classe ouvrière; 3. qu'il soit permis aux réfugiés italiens qui le désirent et qui offrent les garanties nécessaires au point de vue moral et politique, de faire retour en Sicile.
 
*AMGOT: Militärregierung der Alliierten in den besetzten Gebieten/gouvernement militaire des alliés dans les zones occupées
 
Gruppe 19/groupe 19
Doc. 122: September 3, 1943
Letter of Silone to Allen Dulles: "The Italian Socialist Party has decided to ask for revision of the trial for the assassination of Matteotti and has asked for the immediate arrest of Mussolini for having decided on the killing, and of Genral De Bono as his principal organizer."
Doc. 123: (page 2 of doc. 122)
Doc. 124: (page 3 of doc. 122)
 
Doc. 125
"A Mr D, per sua conoscenza" (testo italiano della lettera di 3 Septembre 1943)
Doc. 126: (altra versione della lettera)
 
Doc. 127:
"A Mr D, per sua conoscenza": "Il partito socialista italiano ha lanciato un appello per allarmare il popolo italiano contro la minaccia di un colpo di stato imminente (...). Le ambasciate tedesca e spagnuola di Roma ne sono i centri principali (...)."
 
 
Gruppe 20/groupe 20
Doc. 128: September 2 (?), 1943
Loufbourow (493) getting news from Silone (475) - "Last night the man from the mountains asked me to come out and see him."
Doc. 129: (page 2 of doc. 128)
 
Doc. 130: September 14, 1943
Loufbourow (493) reporting from Silone - "The Man from the Mountains. I spent an hour with him this afternoon."
Doc. 131: (page 2 of doc. 130)
Doc. 132: (page 3 of doc. 130)
 
Doc. 133: October 1, 1943
:Loufbourow (493) reporting to Allen Dulles from "The Man from the Mountains" - "I saw him yesterday afternoon and arranged a way to telephone to him directly and make appointments to meet him in the town. He has at last received permission to travel anywhere in Switzerland on visits and he expects to go to Geneva shortly. You can thus see him Zürich almost any time you wish."
Doc. 134: (page 2 of doc. 133)
Doc. 135: (page 3 of doc. 133)
 
Doc. 136: October 13, 1943
Loofbourow (493) on Silone ("The Man from the Mountains"): "He failed to turn up for tea yesterday but had me come out to see him at his place this morning. Rommel is not using German troops for mopping up recalcitrant Italian armiy units, but intends to leave this to Mussolini's Italian forces."
Doc. 137: (page 2 of doc. 136)
 
Doc. 138: October 24, 1943
Loofbourow (493) getting news from Silone ("The Man from the mountains") on armed resistance: "It is beginning to snow in the mountains and these groups feel they will soon be forced to occupy towns in order to get food, clothing, doctors. Our friend trying to persuade them to scatter in civilian clothes, establish small mobile bases, and keep on the move. (...) Our friend urges us to set up a carte d'identité factory. (...) Suggests these be filled out and stamped by someone who is given a little set-up in an extraterritorial building (...) This, he says, is what the Russians do."
Doc. 139: (page 2 of doc. 138)
 
 
Gruppe 21/groupe 21
Doc. 140: (3. November 1943) 
Lettre de Silone à Allen Dulles (Mr. D.) (the english translation is dated November 3, 1943; see Doc. 141)
Transcription
Mr. D.
Il paraît que les délibérations de la conférence de Moscou ont apporté un changement radical dans la politique de l'AMGOT. Les oppositionnels italiens ne pourront pas s'empêcher d'attribuer à la délégation russe cette victoire importante de l'esprit démocratique sur la tradition et les militaires et ils regretteront que les Etats Démocratiqes n'avaient pas adopté en avance une politique que même le bon sens rendait inévitable. Mais, peut-être, c'est le rôle des démocrates de notre époque d'être toujours remorqués. Toujours est-il que ce n'est pas pour ce genre peu gai de réflexions que j'ose vous écrire, mais pour attirer votre attention sur la nécessité d'examiner à nouveau, à la lumière des délibérations de Moscou, certaines mesures que j'avais proposées et qui avaient été écartées comme intellectuelles.
Vous savez très bien quelle tournure est en train de prendre le mouvement ouvrier en Italie. Le courant démocratique est très fort dans les groupes de fabriques, dans les comités régionaux et dans les syndicats, mais au cours des dernières semaines le courant bolschéviste a réussi de s'emparer de l'appareil central du mouvement ouvrier et pour la première fois je commence à craindre que l'idée de liberté parmi les travailleurs italiens risque de s'affaiblir au profit des illusions dictatoriales. Sans alles jusqu'à l'extrème de certains de mes amis qui attendent l'éclosion prochaine d'une révolution soviétique en Italie, je crois que l'idéal démocratique court un grave danger actuellement dans mon pays. Tous les rapports reçus par moi ces dernières semaines confirment ce danger. (Naturellement le mot "danger" est employé par moi du point de vue d'un socialiste libertaire et non dans le sens capitaliste.) L'emploi de la terreur de la part des Allemands, la faim, l'existance de bandes partisanes, l'incertitude de l'avenir, la faiblesse des Alliés, sont tous des facteurs de radicalisation.
Il faudrait profiter du fait que la libération de l'Italie procède lentement du sud vers le nord pour donner à l'appareil des partis démocratiques une force capable de gagner à leur influence la population italienne au fur et à mesure que l'occupation des Alliés s'étend. Evidemment celle-ci est une tâche à nous, antifascistes italiens; mais, pour les raisons que j'ai déjà eu occasion de vous exposer lors de l'occupation de la Sicile, il se trouve que la plupart des nos amis politiques originaires des régions méridionales est absente des provinces natales et demeure actuellement à l'étranger et surtout en Amérique. Ce serait donc un acte de grande sagesse politique de permettre, toute de suite, que dix ou quinze ou vingt socialdémocrates et démocrates italiens demeurants aux U.S.A. puissent rentrer dans leur pays pour y développer une influence politique favorable par la publication de journaux, l'organisation de conférences, etc. Antonini et Montana pourraient indiquer au Département d'Etat les personnes les plus qualifiées pour ces fonctions. Dans le choix il faudrait comprendre aussi plusieures personnes qui demeurent en Amérique du Sud.
 
Doc. 141: November 3, 1943
(english translation of doc. 140)
 
Gruppe 22/groupe 22
(November 8, 1943); ); (November 2, 1943); Loofbourow (493) reports from Silone (code-names "Mr. Behr", "The Man from the Mountains") 
Doc. 142: November 2, 1943
"Message from Nenni: Six-point agreement by the 5 anti-fascist parties"
 
Doc. 143: November 2, 1943
"Miscellaneous Information": "Stories about the Pope no longer being at liberty unfounded. (...) At a meeting held on Spet. 28th the Socialist and Communist Parties came to an agreement for common action (...)."
 
Doc. 144: 5 novembre 1943
"Pour (Vanni) Montana" (lettre en français): "Depuis la conclusion de l'armistice la coalition des cinq parties antifascistes s'appelle 'comité de libération nationale' (...)."
 
Doc. 145: November 8, 1943
"Message from Southern Italy": "My declarations met unanimous approval here. All agree that necessary to support Badoglio while Allies have confidence in him and for purpose of efficiently waging war against Germany."
 
Doc. 146: November 17, 1943
Loofbourow (493) reporting from "The Man from the Mountains": "He would like to get a cable through to southern Italy inquiring woh represents his Party in the Opposition Party Committee at Naples. He would also like to find out wheter these people are actively aiding our troops, because if so he would like to give them names of trustworthy friends in his home region which is now just behind the lines, with the suggestion that they could parachute instructions or materials, or men, down to thes friends for the purpose of aiding in the fighting. (...) Since the Worker's Committees in the factories were left intact by Mussolini the workers are so strong that the Germans hesitate to punish sabotage by wholesale arrests or executions. Usually the Germans simply post threatening announcements (...)."
493
 
Doc. 147: November 21, 1943 (the copy is to dark to be reproduced):
Transciption
The man from the Mountains
 
If Juliette has occasion to call your conserning him she will call him Mr. Behr --- the Behr went over the Mountain.
In Italy the socialists, Catholics and Communists have made a special pact for cooperation, in addition to the bilateral one already existing between the socs and the communists. Behr is against these pacts, since he believes in cooperation of all oppositional parties, so he is telling his people he will not recognize it.
His party has orders to form groups not exceeding three, for sabotage. He says ther is more sabotage going on than reaches the ears of the press.
(...)
493. 
 
Doc. 148: December 6, 1943 (the copy is to dark to be reproduced):
Transcription
Mr. Behr -- The Man from the MOUNTAINS
Has permission to go to Tessin Wednesday for 3 days. 20 very active socialists arrested in Milan -- quite a blow. One man, Viotta, saved himself and got to Bellinzona. He is a good friend of Behr, ancien député, founter of L'Unité Proletarienne, one of the three groups that formed the nucleous of the Socialist party in Italy. Police also got the printing press of L'Avanti, but it is hoped to resume publication elsewhere within a week. Anti-fascists are discouraged lately -- fascism budding again with black shirts appearing in Pavia, Cremona, Varese, Milan, on people who would not wear them two weeks ago.
17 socialists killed in fighting Brescia.
In Ferrara 27 antifascists arrested and executed as reprisal for murder of fascist chief.
Germans have begun action against partisans, using very small groups of troops equipped with flame-throwers. Near Varese and Brescia flame-throwers had great psychological effect, and many partisan groups disolved for fear of encountering them.
Wants soon to sollicit funds from Antonini again for work in Italy.
Is putting someone at my disposition for technical work in Lugano.
493 
 
Doc. 149-152: December 31, 1943 (the copy is too dark to be reproduced)
Loofbourow reporting from Silone (475, "Mr. Behr"):
Transcription 
"From Mr. Behr. 
Rumored that German military commands may take over the authority in some occupied Italian provinces because the fascist adminstrations there are a nuisance to them. This might work well at beginning because the common people hate the fascists worse than they do the Germans, but in the end the Germans will have to use so many fascist functionaries that the net change may be small.
Industrialist in MILAN AREA REPORT SERIOUS LACK OF COAL, and stocks being used only for industrial purposes.
Germans have taken over Marshall Caviglia's house in Finale and imprisoned his nephew. Also imprisoned a well known General of Alpini named Piva.
Call-up of classes of 23, 24 and 25 was complete fiasco. Gestapo commander of Milan wrote to the Commander of the Legion of Carabinieri saying only 6% answered the call, that the Carabinieri were too passive in the matter and should organize patrols to question young men found in the streets. In Pavia and Asti fathers were arrested because their sons failed to anser the call.
Germans have announced intention to create Italian SS divisions, with Italian soldiers transported to Germany. Rumored that some will be sent to east front. About 9,000 such Italian SS troops have been sent to Italy -- still wearing Italian uniforms. 3,000 of them are near Milan and some others near Turin. Several hundred said to have deserted.
Some superior officers of Carabinieri refused to take new oath in favor of Republic as against King. Many who took the oath to avoid ruin are seeking antifascist contacts.
War-costs in occupied Italy paid by Germans in Lire amount to 200,000,000 perday. 
16,000 tons of RR material, especially rails, taken to Germany to date. Also 3,000 freigth cars. Requisitioning of rice is at rate 5,000 tons per month. Have sent to Germany the modern metalurgical machinery of the Piombino works (Tuscany)- 
In September, October and November 50,000,000,000 paper Lire were printed, by the fascist government. Banknotes are passed out by the handful to people who claim they have been bombed out. This is sometimes done from impoverished wooden sheds in stricken areas. The desire to give appearance of quick aid leads to insufficient control of claims and enables anyone to come and get money faudulently.
1,4 tons of gold brought to Switzerland in 1940 in exchange for allied securities and deposited at Milan branch of Bank of Italy was, on December 12, loaded into 12 closed rail cars, with heavy military escort, and left Farini freight station near Milan in direction of Bolzana.
Bombing is creating unfavorable feeling toward allies amont the Italian people.
Val Polcevera (can't find it on Atlas but he says it is in the north): Not much RR damage but 300 civilians killed.
Recco (between Genoa und Spezzia): First raid hit only the sidewalk of the bridge, second raid knocked down two columns of the bridge and held up rail traffic for 20 days but left the town completely pulverized.
Turin: last raid completely destroyed Faubourg of Casoretto composed of only civilian habitations.
Ancona: November 16, port and railway damage could be repaired in few days but wide destruction in populous quarters.
Treatment of political prisonors: All wings of the star-shaped prison of San Vittore near Milan, exept one, are occupied by political prisoners. They are generally kept chained hand and foot except 10 minutes for eating (which sounds like a hell of a waste of iron to me). The guard is SS. Source was stille shivering from thales of fiendish torture he had heard.
Three bombs were thrown at the Milice in Via della Posta, Milan, during the pompous funderal of Resega, the murdered fascist chief. 4 or 5 dead, 15 wounded wehen Milice replied with gunfire. 200 antifascists arrested that evening.
Saluzzo, south-west of Turin: Dec. 21, revolver attack on German military auto killed Major André of OT, one other officer, and a third was wounded.
Legnano: Dec. 21, two fascist industrialists were murdered.
In a single day the following strikes broke out:
Genoa, trams,
Turin, Fiat,
Voltri San Pierdarena (near Genoa), several plants.
Shortly therafter Breda in Milan was out for three days, and there were strikes at the works of Pirelli, Caproni, Falk, Vace und Olap. (I don't recognize the last two). Germans did not dare take strong action.
Milan: Dec. 21, four young men and one woman arrested transporting illegal arms in a car.
Maggia San Giovanni (near Brescia): Partisans attacked by 40 militia. 9 Militia killed. Partisans surrendered when ammunition ran out. 5 partisans were thereafter shot on the spot. One of the remaining ten partisan prisoners was shot in public square of Darfon. Some others died later from beatings.
Announced Florence will be declared open city by Germans who intend move military installations to Prato in Toscana.
Behr will give us Italia Libera of Dec. 20 which gives details on the strikes.
Alba (below Turin): 300 prisonors of war liberated and joined the partisans. Unfortunately Behr did not know what nationality the prisoners were.
Behr thought following would be especially good on the radio: At Vegiate (which I can't find on the Atlas, but he confirmed the spelling) it was rumored that Hitler had committed suicide, whereupon the workers in a factory started a celebration. 6 German soldiers guarding the factory, not knowing what the disturbance was about, threatened the workers with machineguns, but on hearing the cause of the disturbance they joined the workers in their celebration.
Lovere (between lakes Garda and Como): Middle of December, the Fascio house was burned down and 2 fascists killed.
Wonders why Antonini doesn't send anything. Every mail asks him for help.
493 
 
Gruppe 23/groupe 23:

 

Doc. 153: January 12, 1944
Short message from Silone for M.
 
Doc. 154: January 18, 1944
Loofbourow (493) reporting from Silone ("Behr")
(copy is too dark to be reproduced)
Transcription:
Thursday Behr will see a German woman named Frau Carbe whom he says should be very well informed but may not want to talk much. Her husband runs UFA Wochenschau. She is a jounalist and Behr used to work with her until the Gestapo liquidated the courageous Schulze Benzen gang* 6 or 8 months ago.
Behr will try to take up relations with her again. They were very intimate although she was never his fiancé he says.
493
 
*wahrscheinlich ist die Widerstandsgruppe von Harro Schulze-Boysen gemeint; die geheimen Verhaftungen begannen am 31. August 1942 und erstreckten sich bis Anfang 1943
 
 
Doc. 155 (copy with two short Loofbourow reports; too dark to be reproduced):
Transcription:
January 18, 1944
Socialist Committee
Wednesday Behr will meet with a socialist committee which has been formed here composed of Hans Oprecht, Bringoph** and Leuenberger. This will be their second meeting.
493
 
**Bringolf 
 
(same doc. 155)
Mr. Behr via 493
January 18, 1944
 
FASCIST WOMAN AGENT IN SWITZERLAND
 
:Mr. Behr says a Signorina Colombini escaped to Switzerland and was interned in the Tessin, was mistress of Biotto, a leading Milan socialist. She denounced several socialists. She told the police where the "Avanti" was printed. Behr says it is important to keep her interned. She knows too much about the Italian socialists. However, there is danger of her being freed in several days. Behr's dilemma is how to get the Swiss to keep her interned, without telling them so much that they themselves will question her out about the Italian socialists. He is thinking of talking to Hausamann, Rothmund***, von Steiger**** or Emil Oprecht.
493
 
*** Chef der Eidgenössischen Fremdenpolizei
****Bundesrat, Vorsteher des Eidgenössischen Justiz- und Polizeidepartements
 

 

Doc. 156: March 17, 1944: Loufbourow (493) is reporting from Silone (Mr. Behr) that Silone wants to meet "Mac" (probably John McCaffrey of the British SOE; see Gruppe 1/groupe 1). 
(Copy too dark to be reproduced)
Transcription (only the first part): 
 
From Mr. Behr March 17, 1944
 
Genoa. Socialist newspaper appearing regularly, is printed somewhere out in the country. On account of flood of anti-fascist literature Germans are putting a Kommissar In every printing establishment they can find.
 
The reason Mr. Behr wants to see Mac is the following. Mac's message to him was that he has proof that the 'terrorist' organization that he was working, and with whichh Mr. Behr would never let his party work, is a creation of the Italian police. Some of Behr's people flirted with this organization In violation of his instructions however. Behr wants to see Mac in order to obtain the names of the 'terrorists organization' so that he can tip off his own people for their own protection. 
Rome. etc. 
Milan. etc.
 
Gruppe 24/groupe 24
Doc. 157
"Riposta al memorandum" 
Doc. 158: (pagina 2 del doc. 157)
Doc. 159: "Answer to the memorandum" (english translation)
Doc. 160: (page 2 of doc. 159)
Doc. 161: (page 3 of doc. 159)
 
Gruppe 25/groupe 25
Doc. 162: October 4, 1943
"From M."
 
Doc. 163:
"Cessez tout polémique personnelle"
 
Doc. 164
Telegramma per Montana e Luzzato
 
Doc. 165:
Telegrammi per Montana e Luzzato 
 
Doc. 166:
Telegramma per Luzzato with handwritten note of Loofbourow
 
Doc. 167: November 21, 1943
"The following message is from M. for S."
 
Doc. 168:
Message de S. (Silone) à L., (Luzzato)
 
Doc. 169:
Télégramme de S. à Luzzato (London)
 
Doc. 170:
S. (Silone) à Antonini: "Au cours des dernières semaines plusieurs camerades dirigeants sont tombés."
 
 
Gruppe 26/groupe 26
Doc. 171: January 21, 1944
"For S. from A. (Antonini)": "Arrangements with the Department of State to transfer the money you requested have been concluded. This money will be paid to you through this channel by an initial payments of SF 2000 and payments of SF 1500 per month."
 
Doc. 172: January 20, 1944
"For S. from Luzzato" (part of the page, same doc. 172) January 28, 1944
Transcription (copy to dark to be reproduced):
 
Socialists in Genoa
Mr. Behr says they want automatic arms.
They should be contacted through Signor Piatti who is in Genoa since we here arranged for his release.
493 
 
Gruppe 27/groupe 27
Doc. 173:
"Poll among antifascists in Italy who listen regularly to the British and American broadcasts in Italian" (no indication of date)
 
Doc. 174:
"Answer to the Memorandum" ("1. The present situation in the 'liberated' zones"; "2. Present activities and future possibilities of the party"; etc.)
Doc. 175: (page 2 of doc. 174)
Doc. 176: (page 3 of doc. 174)
 
Gruppe 28/groupe 28
Doc. 177: April 24, 1944
Silone (475) sends telegram to Harper Brothers, Publishers, New York "on a synopsis an film", announcing : "I am going to make a novel out of the theme of this film." 
 
Anmerkung: Silone hatte dieses Drehbuch zuvor schon einem Schweizer Produzenten angeboten; wie sich Ettore Cella (siehe oben: "Für Informationen, in deutsch, über die Schweizer Akten, Quellen und Zeitzeugen zu Ignazio Silone") erinnert, verschob die Produktionsgesellschaft nicht zuletzt aus Rücksicht auf die Schweizer Zensurbehörden den Schwerpunkt von Silones Drehbuch von Italien in die Schweiz und zog andere Autoren hinzu. Der Film, der den Titel "Die letzte Chance" erhielt, kam kurz nach Kriegsende heraus und war ziemlich erfolgreich. Er gewann sogar den Oscar für den besten ausländischen Film. Unfairerweise wird der Name Silones, der doch die Idee für den Film hatte und das Treatment lieferte, im Abspann des Films aber nicht genannt, obwohl Silone auch bei den Dreharbeiten dabei war. Vielleicht hat Silone deswegen den am 24. April 1944 angekündigten Roman niemals geschrieben, was äusserst bedauerlich ist. Der Roman wäre eine Bestandsaufnahme der "Republik von Salò" geworden.
 
Note: Silone avait offert ce scénario déjà auparavant à un producteur suisse; selon le témoignage de Ettore Cella (voire ci-dessus: "Pour des informations, en allemand, sur les documents, sources et témoins suisses sur Ignazio Silone"), ce producteur déplaça le centre de gravité du scénario de l'Italie vers la Suisse et fit réécrire le scénario par d'autres auteurs. Le film sortit juste après la guerre, sous le titre "La dernière chance" et eut beaucoup de succès. Il reçut même l'Oscar pour le meilleur film étranger. De façon pas très correcte, Silone n'est pas nommé comme un des auteurs du film, bien qu'il ait inspiré le film avec son treatment. C'est peut-être la raison pour laquelle in n'a jamais écrit ce roman qu'il avait annoncé le 24 avril 1944, ce qui est fort à déplorer. Le roman serait devenu un inventaire de "la République de Salò". 
 
Doc. 178: May 28, 1944, message from "Harpers", New York "The scenario (…) was forwarded immediately to 3 movie producers who were interested. (…) We are very pleased at the prospect of receiving a novel on the same theme."
 
Doc. 179: April 24, 1944
"Silvio Trentine is dead"
 
Doc. 180: 4 mai 1944
Lettre de S. à L. sur un congrès des italiens d'Amérique avec un article de journal coupé (Basler Nachrichten, 6. Mai 1944: "Massnahmen der Badoglio-Regierung")
 
Doc. 181: June 18, 1944
Transcription (copy too dark to be reproduced):
 
A comrade named Bertini went from Rome to Milan to reorganize the badly mauled socialists there.
There was a political prison on the Island of Elba, and Behr specially calls to our attention one of the inmates named Giuseppe Faranelli, condemned to 30 years imprisonment after the fall of Musso. He was chief of the proallied branch of the soicialist party and Behr's predecessor as chief of the illegal branch, until 1939. Laster he broadcast regularly from Paris in Italian. Might be put to work writing in Rome, helping reducate Italy.
493
 
Doc. 182: 9/10 giugno (1944)
Silone an Antonini, New York
 
Doc. 182a: June 14 (1944)
Antonini an Silone 
 
Doc. 183: August 1944
Silone is concerned about "unauthorised publications" of his books.
 
Doc. 184-185: August 10, 1944 
Transcription (copy is too dark to be reproduced):
 
Behr on Italian Pol. Situation
 
The Russian elements in Italy have instructions from Moscow to manke any sort of concessions in inner politics necessary to foster their influence. They wanted to fuse with the soc. party which, though greater in numbers is not so firmly led and would soon have been absorbed by the communists. Behr and others threatend to organize a new socialist party in event of such fusion, and it was to avoid this that the communists put over the idea of maintainig two independent parties with combined leadership.
However Behr and his friends are unseducable. Russia hat never haed influence in Italy and never should habe. There is too much difference racially and geographically. Behr had messages sent from Rome to London to try to form a link with the English Labour Party -- since there is some community of interest between Italian labor and the labor of England and U.S., but the Labor Party never replied because they don't know yet that Europe exists, they think only about smalles English problems such as taxes, insurance, etc., and will be poor successors to Churchill when they unseat him after the war.
So Behr has decided to call a meeting in Zurich end of August -- such people as Olivetti and Battisti -- to form a sort of Fabian Society within the socialist party for defense against the Russian influence. He is at a loss as to how to cover the printing expenses of this group. Tried to get YMCA to buy a lot of its pamphlets for distribution, but the Y refused because of their political character. Maybe Behr thinks we should subsidize anti-Russian propaganda. He assures us the Russion game is purely nationalistic and expansionist rather than communist, ideological -- as proved by the fact that they are willing to make absolutely any concession politically to increase their power. They are even out to seduce the Catholics into a coalition, in which connection he points out that a kind word or two from the Pope would deliver Poland into their hands because it is largely catholic.
Together with his pal Conrado Bonfantini Behr is going to call another meeting in Zurich, Sept. 3, of leading socs from Northern Italy -- to talk over the situation -- perhaps to persuade them to enroll in his new party.
Partito d'Azione will of cours resist the communist strategy.
 
Behr also asked who at our legation writes Notizie dell' Italia Liberata.
And whether we can help him get 100 pages of a new drama to Harpers in about three weeks.
 
493 

 

Doc. 186: 16 août 1944
OSS stops transmitting Silone's "personal communications since the possibility to telegraph openly has been reestablished")
 
 
Ende/Fin/The End

 

 


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